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In contrast parimutuel betting basically involves betting against other gamblers who are betting on the same event. The potential payout for each outcome changes as more bets are placed, so the odds that you see when you place your bet, may not be the same odds that you are paid out at if more bets are placed after your wager. Here is an example to show how your payout can change even after you placed your bet at certain odds.
Consider a horse race with 8 runners. This is a common thing with parimutuel betting and is the reason why it is smartest to place your bets closer to the starting of the race. That being said money that is in earlier is usually sucker money because the professional gamblers will wait until the last second to have as much information as possible on the race prior to placing their wagers. Parimutuel betting is legal many places where fixed-odds betting is not because you are essentially betting against other gamblers rather than the sportsbook.
The bookie just takes some juice off the top of the betting pool and thus the bookie always profits no matter what happens in the race. The parimutuel system is used in gambling on horse racing , greyhound racing , jai alai , and all sporting events of relatively short duration in which participants finish in a ranked order.
A modified parimutuel system is also used in some lottery games. Parimutuel betting differs from fixed-odds betting in that the final payout is not determined until the pool is closed — in fixed odds betting, the payout is agreed at the time the bet is sold. Parimutuel gambling is frequently state-regulated, and offered in many places where gambling is otherwise illegal. Parimutuel gambling is often also offered at " off track " facilities, where players may bet on the events without actually being present to observe them in person.
In a hypothetical event that has eight possible outcomes, in a country using a decimal currency such as dollars , each outcome has a certain amount of money wagered:. Following the start of the event, no more wagers are accepted. The payout is now calculated. First the commission or take for the wagering company is deducted from the pool. For example, with a commission rate of Thus, the odds on Outcome 4 are 7-to-1 or, expressed as decimal odds , 8.
Prior to the event, betting agencies will often provide approximates for what will be paid out for a given outcome should no more bets be accepted at the current time. Using the wagers and commission rate above In real-life examples, such as horse racing , the pool size often extends into millions of dollars with many different types of outcomes winning horses and complex commission calculations. The rounding loss is known as breakage and is retained by the betting agency as part of the commission.
In some situations, a negative breakage may occur. For example, in horse racing when an overwhelming favorite wins or shows or places. In an event with a set of n possible single-winner outcomes, with wagers W 1 , W 2 , The parimutuel system was invented by Catalan impresario Joseph Oller in The large amount of calculation involved in this system led to the invention of a specialized mechanical calculating machine known as a totalisator , "automatic totalisator" or "tote board", invented by the Australian engineer George Alfred Julius.
The first was installed at Ellerslie Racecourse , Auckland , New Zealand in , and they came into widespread use at race courses throughout the world. The U. Unlike many forms of casino gambling, in parimutuel betting the gambler bets against other gamblers, not the house, which necessarily implies that the bank cannot be broken.
The science of predicting the outcome of a race is called handicapping. Independent off-track bookmakers typically have a smaller take and thus offer better payoffs, but they are illegal in some countries. However, the introduction of Internet gambling led to "rebate shops". These off-shore betting shops promise to return some percentage of every bet made to the bettor. There may be several different types of bets, in which case each type of bet has its own pool. The basic bets involve predicting the order of finish for a single participant, as follows:.
In Canada and the United States , the most common types of bet on horse races include:. Win, place and show wagers class as straight bets , and the remaining wagers as exotic bets. Bettors usually make multiple wagers on exotic bets. A box consists of a multiple wager in which bettors bet all possible combinations of a group of horses in the same race.
A key involves making a multiple wager with a single horse in one race bet in one position with all possible combinations of other selected horses in a single race. A wheel consists of betting all horses in one race of a bet involving two or more races. For example, a 1-all daily double wheel bets the 1-horse in the first race with every horse in the second. People making straight bets commonly employ the strategy of an "each way" bet.
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